Genealogie Srnec

Martin Hejl II1771

Name
Martin Hejl II
Surname
Hejl
Given names
Martin
Name suffix
II
Birth November 14, 1771 38 30
Birth of a sisterTerezie Hejl
September 22, 1772 (Age 10 months)
MarriageAnna BalcarováView this family
November 15, 1796 (Age 25 years)
Birth of a daughter
#1
Rosalie Hejová
March 1, 1798 (Age 26 years)
Birth of a son
#2
Josef Hejl I
September 23, 1799 (Age 27 years)
Birth of a daughter
#3
Anna Hejl
1802 (Age 30 years)
Death of a fatherMartin Hejl I
September 16, 1802 (Age 30 years)
Death of a motherJudita Schwerzl
February 20, 1803 (Age 31 years)
Birth of a son
#4
Frantisek Hejl
April 17, 1805 (Age 33 years)
Birth of a son
#5
Jan Hejl
January 1, 1807 (Age 35 years)
Death of a sonJan Hejl
January 1, 1807 (Age 35 years)
Birth of a daughter
#6
Teresie Hejl
April 5, 1809 (Age 37 years)
Birth of a son
#7
Jan Hejl
September 14, 1811 (Age 39 years)
Birth of a son
#8
Frantisek Hejl
September 14, 1811 (Age 39 years)
Birth of a son
#9
Karel Hejl
February 5, 1816 (Age 44 years)
Birth of a daughter
#10
Teresie Hejl
March 24, 1818 (Age 46 years)
Birth of a granddaughter
#1
Anna Hejl
September 8, 1822 (Age 50 years)
Death of a wifeAnna Balcarová
March 15, 1823 (Age 51 years)
Marriage of a childJosef Hejl IAnna DusekView this family
before 1825 (Age 53 years)
Marriage of a childJosef Hejl IJohana HauslerView this family
May 8, 1825 (Age 53 years)
Birth of a granddaughter
#2
Rozalie Hejl
April 6, 1826 (Age 54 years)
Birth of a grandson
#3
Josef Hejl
August 26, 1827 (Age 55 years)
Birth of a grandson
#4
Josef Hejl II
January 31, 1830 (Age 58 years)
Marriage of a grandchildJosef Hejl IIFrances SchilarView this family
October 10, 1852 (Age 80 years)
Death of a sonJosef Hejl I
May 29, 1860 (Age 88 years)
Death
Family with parents - View this family
father
mother
Marriage: January 31, 1762CZE
2 years
elder sister
2 years
elder sister
2 years
elder sister
3 years
himself
10 months
younger sister
Family with Anna Balcarová - View this family
himself
wife
Marriage: November 15, 1796CZE
15 months
daughter
19 months
son
3 years
daughter
3 years
son
21 months
son
2 years
daughter
2 years
son
son
4 years
son
2 years
daughter

Note

Martin Hejl a jeho rodina byli rolnici jako potomci chalupniku z Československa. Většina chalupníků vlastnili dům a občas malinký kousek země. Po revoluci r. 1848 a následných reformách se chalupníci odpoutali od svých Pánů, ale byli i nadále znevýhodňováni reformami a neměli jakoukoliv šanci zlepšit svou životní úroveň. Protože nadále viděli, že se jejich situace zhoršuje, malí vlastníci půdy shledali těžší konkurovat na trhu se zemědělskými plodinami a výrobky. V roce 1900 méně než 0,1 procenta populace Čech vlastnila půdu. Situace byla ještě horší pro syny malých a středně velkých majitelů/nájemců půdy. Jak mohl otec rozdělit svůj malý pozemek mezi své potomky? Bylo zvykem, že otec poskytoval farmu každému ze svých synů, který dosáhl dvaceti let. Když byla země rozdělena, každý pruh byl rozparcelován na několik uzoučkých pruhů. Navíc se k této situaci musela přičíst stále zvyšující hustota obyvatel. Život v Cermě (město, ze kterého odešla první velká skupina Čechů do Texasu) strávil Martin a jeho rodina (podle dochovaných údajů) v jednopokojovém domě s devíti dalšími členy rodiny včetně Josefa. Z tohoto důvodu Josef pravděpodobně prodal svůj podíl půdy, aby získal peníze na cestu do Ameriky.

Martin Hejl and his family were peasants of the "chalupnici" class(cottagers) of Chechoslovakia. Most cottagers owned a house andsometimes a very small plot of land. After the revolutions of 1848 andsubsequent reforms, cottagers were emmancipated from their "Lords" butstill felt cheated by the reforms as they had no way to better theirstandard of living. Further, as they saw their situation growingprogressively worse, small landholders found it more difficult to competein agricultural markets. By 1900 less than 1/10 of 1 percent of thepopulation of Bohemia owned land. This situation created an even greaterproblem for the sons of small and even middle-sized land holders. Howcould the father divide his small holdings among his heirs? It wastraditional for the father to provide a farm for each of his sons at age20. When land was divided, each strip was partitioned lengthwiseresulting in a series of ever narrowing strips. Further, with theseeconomic condtions came increasingly overcrowded living conditions.Living in Cerma, (the town which produced the first major groups ofCzechs in Texas) Martin and his family are recorded as occupying a oneroom cottage with nine other family members, including Josef. It is forthis reason that Josef probably sold his portion of land for enough moneyto pay for passage to America.

(Paraphrased fromwww.angelfire.com/tx5/texasczech/studies/peasants.htm): The Situation ofthe Czech Peasants Excerpted from the book: Krasna America: A Study of the Texas Czechs,1851-1939, by Clinton Machann and James W. Mendly and published by EakinPress, Austin, Texas in 1983